1. lasfloresdelmal:

    "Patología en quirófano" (1/?) Carcinoma basocelular.

    Este tipo de lesiones raramente metastizan, pero son de crecimiento lento e infiltran progresivamente.

    Macroscópicamente este tipo de lesiones pueden tener un aspecto similar al del carcinoma de células escamosas, y junto a este son los tumores malignos más frecuentes de piel.

    Sus sitios de aparición frecuente son cabeza y cuello, poco común en tronco, extremidades y zonas desprovistas de pelo. Entre los factores de riesgo para el desarrollo del carcinoma basocelular se encuentra principalmente la exposición prolongada a rayos UVB.

    Dejar que la lesión alcance gran tamaño es dificultar el trabajo del cirujano y provocar más secuelas al paciente, de modo que son imperativas la detección y escisión precoz. Es importante el control histopatológico de los bordes de resección para evitar recidivas, debido a la naturaleza irregular y asimétrica de su crecimiento.

    Obviamente, el diagnòstico definitivo es el análisis anatomopatológico de la pieza.

    #AnatomíaPatológica #Cirugía #CuandoLasMedicinaJuntaSusRamas

     
  2. medicalschool:

    Neural Layers

    •  neural stem cells lie in the layer closest to the ventricular space, the ventricular layer
      • this layer generates both neuroblasts and glioblasts

    Neuroblasts - neurons arise first as neuroblasts and migrate along radial gial, their migration stops at cortical plate. Glioblasts - glia arise later as glioblasts

    Both neurons and glia undergo a complex process of growth, differentiation and interaction over a long developmental time period. 

    (Source: php.med.unsw.edu.au, via thenewenlightenmentage)

     
  3. fabuloustyrell:

    Jacinto Convit has died today

    Jacinto Convit García (born 11 September 1913) is a Venezuelan physician and scientist, known for developing a vaccine to fight leprosy and his studies to cure different types of cancer. In 1987, he received a Prince of Asturias Award in the Scientific and Technical Research category. He has been awarded with about 45 orders of honour by Venezuelan and foreign universities. In 1988, he was nominated for a Nobel Prize in Medicine for his anti-leprosy vaccine.

    On June 7, 2010, a Venezuelan newspaper announced the successful development by Convit of a new Cancer vaccine intended to fight colon, stomach and breast cancer. In June 2010 the “Instituto de Biomedicina” published a note clarifying that they have been working for the last 3 years on a vaccine against cancer and it is still in development. During this time they have been evaluating a small group of 23 patients, mostly breast cancer and a few of colon, stomach and brain cancers. They have been giving patients an experimental model of immunotherapy against cancer, which have had encouraging results.They clarify that this is a therapeutic and not prophylactic vaccine.

    This vaccine is based on the idea that cancerous cells appear and propagate because the body doesn’t detect them. A sample of the tumour mixed with formalin and BCG marks the malignous cells so the immune system reacts and attacks the cancer

    (Source: braanstarks)

     
  4. statlab:

    Light micrograph of adult intestinal blood flukes, Schistosoma mansoni. The adults (male thick & bluish, female white & threadlike) normally live in pairs in blood vessels of the small intestine, causing dysentery & diarrhoea. Their spiked eggs cause anaemia, inflammation & tissue scarring. The brown pigmentation is a blood meal.

    After picking up a leaky urine that was submitted for schistosomiasis testing, I have officially reached that point in my life where things that are wet and are not supposed to be wet will gross me out because they remind me of my daily pile of leaky containers.

    (via nandowo)

     

  5. HI there guys, I’ll be uploading this weekend some sweet new parasite pics a classmate took in the lab.

    Among them, are: Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania sp., Onchocerca volvulus, Dirofilaria Immitis, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, Toxoplasma gondii…

    And even some of the vector arthropods, like Lutzomya panamensis, Anopheles sp., Culex quinquefasciatus, Simulium metallicum, and Rhodius prolixus.

    Stay tunned!

     
    • Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a potentially life-threatening illness caused by the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). It is found mainly in endemic areas of 21 Latin American countries1, where it is mostly transmitted to humans by the faeces of triatomine bugs, known as ‘kissing bugs’ , among other names, depending on the geographical area.

      About 7 million to 8 million people are estimated to be infected worldwide, mostly in Latin America where Chagas disease is endemic. The cost of treatment for Chagas disease remains substantial. In Colombia alone, the annual cost of medical care for all patients with the disease has been estimated to be about US$ 267 million. Spraying insecticide to control vectors would cost nearly US$ 5 million annually.

      Chagas disease is named after Carlos Ribeiro Justiniano Chagas, a Brazilian doctor who first discovered the disease in 1909.

    • About 7 million to 8 million people worldwide are estimated to be infected withTrypanosoma cruzi (the parasite that causes Chagas disease) worldwide, mostly in Latin America.
    • Chagas disease was once entirely confined to the Region of the Americas – principally Latin America – but it has now spread to other continents.
    • Chagas disease is curable if treatment is initiated soon after infection.
    • Up to 30% of chronically infected people develop cardiac alterations and up to 10% develop digestive, neurological or mixed alterations, for which specific treatment may become necessary.
    • Vector control is the most useful method to prevent Chagas disease in Latin America.
    • Blood screening is vital to prevent infection through transfusion and organ transplantation.

    (Source: who.int)

     
  6. Triatoma maculata

    Photo taken by me

     
  7. Strongyloides stercoralis

    Photo taken by me

    What is strongyloidiasis?

    Strongyloidiasis is a disease caused by a nematode, or a roundworm, in the genus Strongyloides. Though there are over 40 species within this genus that can infect birds, reptiles, amphibians, livestock and other primates, Strongyloides stercoralis is the primary species that accounts for human disease. The larvae are small; the longest reach about 1.5mm in length — the size of a mustard seed or a large grain of sand.

    How do people get infected with strongyloides?

    Strongyloides is classified as a soil-transmitted helminth. This means that the primary mode of infection is through contact with soil that is contaminated with free-living larvae. When the larvae come in contact with skin, they are able to penetrate it and migrate through the body, eventually finding their way to the small intestine where they burrow and lay their eggs. Unlike other soil-transmitted helminths such as hookworm and whipworm whose eggs do not hatch until they are in the environment, the eggs of Strongyloides hatch into larvae in the intestine. Most of these larvae will be excreted in the stool, but some of the larvae may molt and immediately re-infect the host either by burrowing into the intestinal wall, or by penetrating the perianal skin. This characteristic ofStrongyloides is termed auto-infection. The significance of auto-infection is that unless treated for Strongyloides, persons may remain infected throughout their lifetime.

    In addition to contact with soil and auto-infection, there have been rare cases of person-to-person transmission in:

    • organ transplantation
    • institutions for the developmentally disabled
    • long-term care faciliites
    • daycare centers

    (Source: cdc.gov)

     
  8. Trichuris trichiuria

    Photos taken by me

     
  9. i-heart-histo:

    A song that, quite frankly, deserves way more views than it currently has…Sam you are a genius. Bravo. i-heart-histo salutes you.

    The Epithelia Song by Sam Pollen

    The first type of epithelia - is simple squamous

    If you didnt have it in ya  - it would be such a pain cos

    They’re found in your cornea - that’s in your eye

    And in your alveolus  - to help you stay alive.

    Now down in your vagina - there’s squamous stratified

    In every woman from France to China - they’re non-keratinized

    So on that rare occasion - when you bring home a guy

    It will resist abrasion - when you put things inside

    [Chorus]

    Oh epithelia -a -a -a

    So nice to see yer -er -er

    Cos if I didn’t have yer

    I would be dead

    Now let’s talk about cuboidal - they’re in your thyroid gland

    They’re not just for absorption - they’re for secretion and

    By iodination  - they make T3 day and night

    And by approximation  - their width is equal to their height

    Now if you said columnar - I’d say that’s in my ileum

    And in my stomach lining - where squamous would be silly and

    They’re packed with microvilli - to help absorb the things I chew

    And the muscularis externa - helps to shift along my food

    [Chorus]

    Hey pseudostratified  - come on now tell me what’s your game

    You could have fooled me but  - your pseudo prefix gave it away

    You play on multilayered - but I see its all an act

    Your all joined to the basement membrane - in my upper respiratory tract

    That leaves transitional - protecting tissues from urea

    You’re different and original  - and boy am I so glad you ‘re here

    I’d be an awful wretch - if it weren’t for your expertise

    My bladder would not stretch - and I could not hold half as much wee

    [Chorus - repeat x2]

    (Source: i-heart-histo)

     
     
  10.  
  11. Male (brown) and female (purple) Schistosoma haematobium

    cjohnstonbioart:

    Schistosoma haematobium (urinary blood fluke) mated pair (WIP)

    Models created with 3ds Max and ZBrush for the urinary blood fluke animation.

    After blood fluke larvae hatch, males (brown) and females (purple) pair off, with the larger males cradling the thinner females within their gynaecophoric canal.

    The mated pair travel through the blood vessels until they reach the arteries surrounding the bladder. This is where the female will lay her eggs.

    this is awesome

    (Source: cjohnstonbioart, via scientificillustration)

     
  12. neuromorphogenesis:

    A blueprint for restoring touch with a prosthetic hand

    New research at the University of Chicago is laying the groundwork for touch-sensitive prosthetic limbs that one day could convey real-time sensory information to amputees via a direct interface with the brain.

    he research, published early online in theProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, marks an important step toward new technology that, if implemented successfully, would increase the dexterity and clinical viability of robotic .

    "To restore sensory motor function of an arm, you not only have to replace the motor signals that the brain sends to the arm to move it around, but you also have to replace the sensory signals that the arm sends back to the brain," said the study’s senior author, Sliman Bensmaia, PhD, assistant professor in the Department of Organismal Biology and Anatomy at the University of Chicago. "We think the key is to invoke what we know about how the brain of the intact organism processes , and then try to reproduce these patterns of neural activity through stimulation of the brain.”

    Bensmaia’s research is part of Revolutionizing Prosthetics, a multi-year Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) project that seeks to create a modular, artificial upper limb that will restore natural motor control and sensation in amputees. Managed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, the project has brought together an interdisciplinary team of experts from academic institutions, government agencies and private companies.

    Bensmaia and his colleagues at the University of Chicago are working specifically on the sensory aspects of these limbs. In a series of experiments with monkeys, whose sensory systems closely resemble those of humans, they indentified patterns of  that occur during natural object manipulation and then successfully induced these patterns through artificial means.

    The first set of experiments focused on contact location, or sensing where the skin has been touched. The animals were trained to identify several patterns of physical contact with their fingers. Researchers then connected electrodes to areas of the brain corresponding to each finger and replaced physical touches with electrical stimuli delivered to the appropriate areas of the brain. The result: The animals responded the same way to artificial stimulation as they did to physical contact.

    Next the researchers focused on the sensation of pressure. In this case, they developed an algorithm to generate the appropriate amount of electrical current to elicit a sensation of pressure. Again, the animals’ response was the same whether the stimuli were felt through their fingers or through artificial means.

    Finally, Bensmaia and his colleagues studied the sensation of contact events. When the hand first touches or releases an object, it produces a burst of activity in the brain. Again, the researchers established that these bursts of brain activity can be mimicked through electrical stimulation.

    The result of these experiments is a set of instructions that can be incorporated into a robotic prosthetic arm to provide sensory feedback to the  through a neural interface. Bensmaia believes such feedback will bring these devices closer to being tested in human clinical trials.

    "The algorithms to decipher motor signals have come quite a long way, where you can now control arms with seven degrees of freedom. It’s very sophisticated. But I think there’s a strong argument to be made that they will not be clinically viable until the  is incorporated,” Bensmaia said. “When it is, the functionality of these limbs will increase substantially.”

    The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, National Science Foundation and National Institutes of Health funded this study. Additional authors include Gregg Tabot, John Dammann, Joshua Berg and Jessica Boback from the University of Chicago; and Francesco Tenore and R. Jacob Vogelstein from the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory.

    (via thenewenlightenmentage)